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21/01/2011

Notes on the typographical engraving in Spain I

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It is not easy to find written on the history of typographical recorded in Spain, an issue that we've always wanted from UTD safeguarded and shared, and that is why we find a letter concerning more than 130 years old, fills us with satisfaction. This is the interesting article "Notes on the typographical recorded in Spain" published in "The Spanish and American Illustration" in 1877 by Francisco Navarro Villoslada, and according to comments "are the first from Spain have been published. " We leave you with a transcript of the document, which is sure to delight more than one.
Excerpted from the Spanish and American Illustration.
Year XXI - No. VI - February 15, 1887 
 Year XXI - Supplement No. VII - February 1877

 

 

The woodcut, which today is a real need, or at least one of the most useful and lavish auxiliary Typography, many years has preceded it, and it was, so to speak, the real father of Printing.

Two different kinds of printing was known before the discovery of Gutenberg: the woodcut or engraving of characters on wooden boards, and intaglio printing or metal plates, now in half-relief, now in sweet. The first preceded the second, as the oldest known dated evidence of a metal engraving for printing, is a St. Bernard in the year 1454 that exists in the library of Paris, while already in the fourteenth century stamped woodcuts cards, mainly in Germany or the Netherlands. Is also assumed that cards be printed in Spain, as was the use of them so pervasive, that was the subject of prohibitions, both as Juan Alfonso XI of Castile. Whatever it was, woodblock printed books or intaglio, tables or plates, and therefore fixed and motionless character, preceded the typography, which is essentially different from the previous impressions of mobility rates. The first edition of Johannis Catholicon woodblock Januensis was the second in movable characters. These were recorded on a first letter by letter, with separation and singularly, but soon came to merge them into matrices, first recorded in the hole, and then kneeling by punches. If the history of Printing in Spain is incomplete and almost in the same state as the left one hundred years ago Fr Mendez, who was not of incunabula, or books printed in the fifteenth century, the engraving of punches in steel and cast letters are yet to begin. At least, I know of no writing on the subject. To give the news of these notes very slight, I had to collect scattered indications of the original documents, and species listed as rare books passed in the art. Few are each other's data, but I think perhaps my ignorance, first from Spain that have been published.

I believe that the same will be received with indulgence. Must necessarily be brief. I feel sick. The history of the cast, however, and typographic engraving is the true story of Printing. You can say that it did not quite invent until Schoeffer perfected the art of punches and mold open letters Gutenberg had devised. A disciple of the first, Nicolas Jenson, significantly decreased the difficulties offered by the engraving, replacing the Gothic letters, or rather, German, then converted the forfis we call, with the round we currently use. Later, in 1501, Aldus Manutius invented the italic italic characters, which were used for the first time in the Virgil of the celebrated printer, and prints by Francisco de Bolonia.

For people completely alien to art say that punch is a small instrument made of rectangular steel, and four or five inches long, in whose mouth or blunt letter is written to the enhancement, and so, put on a plate copper and a slap on the opposite end, is the breakout point as recorded in hole in the plate. The instrument of steel, as we have seen, is called punch, and the letter stuck in a copper slat inch long, one wide and thick medium is called a matrix, and the characters in them are a cast iron castings. The metal used in the letter is lead smelter with a mixture of antimony, more or less, depending on the strength you want to take. For large-circulation newspapers Ios is added to this mixture about 1 100 of copper and 6 to 9 per 100 of tin.

The Germans themselves, as in Spain, first in France and several other European nations introduced the printing press, started coming into the secrets of cast letters. When the Benedictine monks of Montserrat in 1498, he led the monastery to the printer Luschner, established in Barcelona, made it a condition that if they wanted new words to his books, the teacher should do it, by paying the expenses and salaries Monastery. Necesitóse, in fact, many new words, as inferred from the accounts, bequeathing open for punches, dies of copper sink and drain them the letter, not lead, as has been believed by many, but tin , or maybe mix the two metals. Ajustábanse arrays and settled into some instruments called snails, all of which proves that the art of casting in the XV and XVI was almost as advanced as today, and that the printers were good at the same time recorders, casters, mold composers , pressmen, and as we could easily prove, if that were our purpose, men of much religion and literature. Luschner he carried a Swiss refiner, which from time to time going to Perpignan to get punches and casting characters. The floral decorations and capital letters hacíanse by wood carvers and recorders, exactly the same as in our deluxe editions. At first it was left blank, the site that were to occupy these capital letters, for the miniaturist illuminators and painted to your liking.

It does not seem amiss to say here something about the origin of some of the various denominations with which characters are distinguished according to their shape and size. The character known in France as Saint Augustine, who belongs to the body 12. "Division in typographical points, had this name because the letter used and Arnold Conrad Swenheym Pannartz in the book of the City of God that the Holy Father. These printers published at the same time the Epistles of Cicero Family, and the name of the prince of Roman orators, says Crapelet, was until today to mark the type of writing that served in the printing of that volume. The Cicero for the body 11. ° So says this author, who is voting in the art, but today is designated in Spain and the body 12. "I suspect the degree that the Spanish know as the reading has its origins in the book beautifully printed in Venice in 1471 by Vindelino of Spira, entitled: Prima pars LKCTUÜVK superf.f. novo, in Bartholo of Saxoferrato (fol. in bold face, two columns, and no difficulty will be granted after these examples, the names of Breviary, Missal, Canon, Pelicano, come from the kind of letter used in our first books of prayer and liturgy.

In these accounts and impressions are made in Montserrat as birth and poke these names, without knowing if they were at the time of current use, or were first applied to non-technical language. Text names and Glosilla are taken from the respective destination in a comment piece, or a glossed text, given to these two degrees as unequal among themselves, and those of Mignon Nomparell and reveal their French origin. The first news we have oriental character is used in Spain relating to the issues made in 1487 and 1490 in Aragon Hijar Ischar or in Hebrew, Eliezer, son of Alanta. This printer was Jewish, as evinced by name and by the books she gave birth.

After they have come to the famous Bible Complutense, due to the colossal efforts of Cardinal Cisneros, and printed from 1514 to 1517 by Broca, who in the late fifteenth century was a printer in Pamplona. Complutense Polyglot Bible, named after elements have been published in Alcalá de Henares, is the first of its kind and constitutes the greater glory of Spain and typographical and artistic monument to record punches. Arnaldo Guillermo Brocar was, according to Quintanilla, who for such work "styled type the characters in all languages, the first in the world, not without great expense and effort, as are some letters, which is stronger than apuntuacion main form. Of these characteres he used after Arias Montano, for the Bible Regia, which were at this University, held by Juan Brocario, print it, and son of the former, and the way that gave them Christophor tino Plan has already been made easy this print in Hebrew, Chaldean, Greek and Syriac, but débesele characteres primacy to our school. "

"As far as the expense, said another historian, not a reason to skip that only in the conduct of seven books Hebrews spent four thousand pieces, and that added to these costs of wages, clerks, printers and other officers the sum of the cost grew to more than fifty thousand pieces. "If the printing and typographic engraving had remained in Spain as they started, there would be in the world who might dispute our primacy in the art, but I think after this time will not re-recorded in the Peninsula punches until the last century. The press of Christopher Plantin in Antwerp was the punches and matrices of the Complutense for editing the aforementioned Bible Regia (15G9-1573;, and ten thousand ducats advanced him further that Felipe II to the sacred books, forming a rich collection of foundries, which took the whole of Europe. His characters were then, and remained for two centuries, most worthy of esteem. Plantin Matrices served at the end of the last century Mr Juan Manuel Merlo for their smelters acreditadísimas in Madrid: PP. Jesuits of this Court had at the time of his expulsion by Carlos III matrices few games from the same source, which then turned to Hospice.

And do not wonder so long: an open punch well-tempered steel and can give many matrices, each matrix preserved in the hands of smart, served many years without anything detract. D. King Fernando VI ordered to form a casting workshop, added to the Royal Library, the librarian D. Juan de Santander, which began to acquire a portion of the old matrix, and assigned to D. Gil, later appointed Recorder of the Mint of Mexico, to amplify some degree defective. Also began to work for then engraving punches D. Antonio de Espinosa. This happened for the years 1750 to 1752.

Twelve or fourteen later, watching the Marqués de la Mina general the fans who had awakened to the Press, had to talk to Carlos III of a master gunsmith in Barcelona, called Eudaldo Pradell or Paradell, which was dedicated to entertain their leisure undoubtedly the unprofitable trade punches open letter. Similar enough recommendation of Captain General of Catalonia to the king, through the Marquis de Squilace, issues the following order to the Marquis of Grimaldi, "Hon. Lord King has used grant Eudaldo Pradell, master armorer, who lives in Barcelona, a hundred gold doubloons pension each year, and fifty pounds of lead per cost and expenses for a period of ten, with quality to come to settle in Madrid and used in the exercise of open molds for all kinds of letters, in order to supply the impressions of Spain and Latin characters such as Hebrew, Greek and Arabic, as proposed. "God, etc.-San Ildefonso, August 4, 1764." Pradell accounted worthy of the confidence that he had deposited, and came to Madrid in immediately with four degrees of letter that had opened, two of Breviary, a Reading and other Text. He established his workshop in the Wall Street Inn, where he made some smelters to these degrees, and opened with dependability and honesty Catalan new punches, to put together a beautiful collection of twelve degrees, from that of Glosilla to the Great Canon. With regard to Eastern characters, I think nothing did. He died on December 7, 1788, and Charles IV granted the architect son of the pension business and franchise that his father enjoyed.

He inherited his income and privileges, but not his talent. Neither he, also named Edward, and his brother Pedro Ifern knew opening punch, at least up to complete a degree: they were content to exploit the twelve that the father left them, setting them two foundries.

Eduardo Pradell Eudaldo or happens to be the first recorded punches in Spain. The royal order of August 4 granting a pension of six thousand reais is preceded by the following heading: "Board the first letters began recording in Spain." Siguenza, the mechanism of the Art of Printing, says,

Although Sigüenza seems to contradict this paragraph, Anaya, copying, Pradell assumed that Spanish is the first engraver of punches.

All, however, were wrong. Apart from William Brocar, although German, Oriental letters punches opened in Spain, using in part, as it were, science and high art, calligraphers and Spanish scholars, is not true that the dealer was the first recorder Catalan Spanish . Certainly no one before him had a large library full of punches and gradual, but his name was not even known if D. Gil, Fernando VI time in the middle of the century, recorded punches that still exist in the National Press, and are of such good taste and proper execution as Pradell. Made for 6,600 punches and 8,000 library arrays.

Gil did not give this more news for today but was a person of great respect and great skill, and that towards the last third of the departed to Mexico, where he spent much time recording the Mint. He died there on April 16, 1798.

Gil partner in the profession and practice of open picks for the Royal Library was D. Antonio Espinosa de los Monteros. There are some more biographical data that other artificer, but the truth is not as worthy of honorable mention as above. Murcia was: Entered too young at the Casa de Moneda in Madrid, and she left soon after, fighting with one of the great masters, called Prieto. Then he began to record his own hole, but not out there making career, he devoted himself to record the letter of the blades in candy. Gil made company to open casting punches the King in the Library, and a few months separated the two artists in complete disagreement. Able to get placement in the mint in Seville, where he spent some time with twenty-four reales a day, but at his behest was taken at the same salary at the Mint of Segovia and established casting workshop in Madrid, led by woman who had so much mischief as her husband.

He was making engravings pinching Segovia, Madrid matrices and sent his wife to the melting point. The good lady applied to discharge the same rules of domestic economy to her store: she bought the old lead guttering and windows on the trail, and caught him mixing the least possible so that the old letter used to buy as Espinosa if pure lead. Then established a printing press in Madrid and one in Segovia, and was accused of illegally printed, placing the name, of Pamplona, Barcelona and other cities of Spain on the cover. All this does not prevent him from being academic merit of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, main burner Mint of Segovia, director of the School of Drawing in the same city. He had been in Rome to perfect his art, and had the honor of the Infante D. Gabriel chose one of its foundries, the italic font, for the famous edition of Sallust homemade Ibarra. He was one of the eleven printers in 1792 accounted against the war or the Royal Press competition was a particular printers. His printing establishment of Madrid at that time had seven presses and the street was open in the Mirror. As a writer and founder is the least worth of those we have cited, however the honor that made him the Ibarra Sallust. I had too many offices to excel in none. However, there is no denying that Espinosa felt aspirations of the great masters of art, ie to become a writer, founder and printer, or as he said, a real typographer. But these three branches of art were enough to give employment to the most active man, perseverance and talent, and Espinosa had to devote their time mainly due to government employment. So in any of those three professions came to perfection, and his guys can not compete with those of Gil and Pradell or their issues compared to those of Sancha, Ibarra and Printing Real.

In 1766 a foundry supplied Espinosa Reading the Gazette of Madrid, and in this work we found some flaws, most notably the inequality in the cutting of the letters and the lack of fortification in the metal, remnants of the government undoubtedly feminine and therefore, both that newspaper and other print shops looking for individuals preferably Pradell smelters, and Daoiz Merlo, smelters mere latter, no punches recorders.


FRANCISCO NAVARRO VILLOSLADA

www.unostiposduros.com



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