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28/01/2010

General engraving systems

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EMBROSSING:


Linocut.


Woodcut.



        - A fiber: knives and gouges.

        
- A contrafibra: Rods

Irons: Varnished or reserved areas to print (which stay on the surface) with acid bite areas not printers.


Collage: Making a flat surface or material adhering to a higher base level.



Additive techniques.

        - Base liquid: Paints, varnishes. Accession carborundum varnish, sand, wood shavings etc.,

        - Bases pasty or creamy plaster: Pastes, resins, adhesives, etc..

        - Strong foundations: Objects, textures adhering, welding, etc.



Inking Methods.

        - Monochrome: with a doll or, more commonly, by roller.

        - Polychrome:

                - Reserves the passage of the various inking rollers.

                
- For different ink stripes on the roller.

                - Cut the plate in several pieces that are inked individually and fit the stamp.

                - Several plates with the design of the ink involved in the stamping and registration.

                - Iron loss: Stamped ink color is removed from the areas to print the ink for later and so on.


Photographic methods.

        - Helio engraving.

        - Photo engraving, polymers, emulsions and boards:

       
- Applications for relief printing from negative transparencies, drawn directly or positive to negative by contact and photographic reproduction. Study of exposure, loss and dot gain.

       - Book by relief printing, lithography, offset and screen printing or direct transfer or lift method.


Drawing methods of photographic transparencies for applications:


     Direct methods:

        - Direct Draw Support acetate, vellum or polyester; draw means more or less opaque and adjust the exposure to etch: Pencil,

          wax crayons and black or red. Pencils and lithographic bars. Paintings and black and red inks. Opacities stickers, cutouts, a brush and pen. Fat ink repellency on water. Repellency of aqueous inks on fatty media. Photocopies. Accession latex paints and powders, textures and shavings. Etc.

        - Make transparent the media of drawing, designed with opaque media with oils or solvents.

        - Making the opacity of various objects, lines, reflections and light.

      

      Photo reproduction:

        - Contacts direct drawing methods.

        - Photo montage of traditional original (line, pattern, stochastic and random point, Biton, posterization, continuous tone, trichromIe and process) and foto reproduction, distortions. object on camera. Manufacture of frames, the use of loose crystals.

        - Applications of computer aided design and printing on transparent media.

        - Processes electrographic on transparent media.





INTAGLIO OR ENGRAVING IN HOLLOW:



Engraving.


Direct Techniques.



         - Drypoint: Direct shares tips and materials on metal, plastic and acetate. Barbas features.

         - Black Way: From dark to light, treatment of the tools. Grain directly, Berceau and roulette; grained and bitten by resin indirect succession.


Direct Techniques wet.


        - Lavis: Recorded sulfur. Lavis traditional iron and resin.


Indirect techniques.


        - Etching: On the drawing board by removing the varnish varnished with spikes or other means, biting the metal plate.

        - Aquatint: treatment of the subject painting varnish or lacquer, brush, swab, spray, airbrush etc.. Most noticeable effects, perhaps tinted stud.

        - Aquatint sugar: traditional method, copier toner.


        - Methods up: engraving salt, gum or tempera. Recorded oil, oleograbado. Alcograbado, bitumen and toner. Recorded on the wax.

Engraving pen. Lithographic pencil and ink.

        - Varnish Soft: texture mapping, drawing on paper or zieglerografía superimposed textures.


Mordant:

     Time of bite and aggression dependent on concentration, temperature, humidity, what has worked, and so on. It is appropriate to teach a new solution to bite as a piece of old metal that is intended to record.

        - Mordant Dutchman: Water 1l., Hydrochloric acid 100 cc., Chlorate of potash from 20 to 25 grs., Sodium chloride 20 to 25 grs.

        - Nitric acid: Zinc, usually in water concentration 1:10, strong 1:5. Copper strong 1:2 normal 1:4.

        - Perchloride iron (ferric chloride): Copper 200 to 300 grams. per liter of water, 28 degrees Baume.

        - Solutions of sulfuric acid to bite iron and steel, to aluminum hydroxide, etc.

Varnish:

        - Varnish liquid Turpentine 100 grs., Bitumen or asphalt 150 grs., Beeswax 300 grams., Blend until desired consistency in turpentine or thinner depending on the requirements of flexibility and drying.

        - Alcohol varnish (varnish similar to bulbs) to 205 rosin resin in methyl alcohol and aniline, the use of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol accelerates drying.

        - Varnish soft: The same proportion of beeswax and tallow with liquid bitumen to acquire the desired consistency.


Additive techniques.


        - Base liquid: Paints, varnishes. Accession carborundum varnish, sand, wood shavings etc.,

        - Bases pasty or creamy plaster: Pastes, resins, adhesives, etc..

        - Strong foundations: Objects, textures adhering, welding, etc.


Inking Methods.


    Monochrome: With tarlatan, scrapers or spatulas plastic or cardboard tarlatan cleaning by hand or paper.


    Polychrome:
        - A stud: inking and cleaning of areas.
        - Reserves.
        - Several plates with design, made with the same or different techniques, each involving ink stamping and registration.
        - Entintados hollow and relief.
        - Viscosities Method: In plates with various levels and sizes. Size ink rollers and apply several different hardness and viscosity inks inking of the drawings. More fluid inks repel applied thicker on top.


Photographic methods.

    Helioengraving.
    Photo engraving, polymers, emulsions fotofabricación and boards:

        - Applications for relief printing from negative transparencies, drawn directly or positive to negative by contact and photographic reproduction. Study of exposure, loss and dot gain.

        - Applications for printing on transparencies positive hole, drawn directly or positive to negative by contact and photographic reproduction. Study of exposure, loss and dot gain.
        - Book by relief printing, lithography, offset and screen printing or direct transfer or lift method.


Transparencies drawing methods:

    Direct methods:

        - Direct Draw Support acetate, vellum or polyester; draw means more or less opaque and adjust the exposure to etch: pencil, wax crayons and black or red. Pencils and lithographic bars. Paintings and black and red inks. Opacities stickers, cutouts, a brush and pen. Fat ink repellency on water. Repellency of aqueous inks on fatty media. Photocopies. Accession latex paints and powders, textures and shavings. Etc.

        - Make transparent the media of drawing, designed with more or less opaque media with oils or solvents.

        - Making the opacity of various objects, lines, reflections and light.

    Fotorreproducción:

        - Contacts direct drawing methods.

        - Photo montage of traditional original (line, pattern, stochastic and random point, Biton, posterization, continuous tone, trichromIe and process) and fotorreproducción, distortions. object on camera. Manufacture of frames, the use of loose crystals.

        - Applications of computer aided design and printing on transparent media.

        - Processes electrographic on transparent media.



LITHOGRAPHY


    Direct design methods and transferred, not photographic, lithographic design for Parent lithic and metal sheets.

        - Pencils and lithographic bars.

        - Solid Ink for hazy.

        - Aguadas lithographic ink drawing with traditional media electrographic toner suspension.

        - Inks and liquid bitumen applied to fatty pen, brush, sponge, buffered, dotted, airbrush, etc..

        - Means that repel each other: Bitumen of Judea in the water. Lithographic drawing ink liquid universal solvent. Etc.

        - Reserves of acacia applied by brush, scattered, buffered, and so on.

        - Transfer of printing and photocopying.

        - Printing in relief, lithography and silkscreen ink on the matrix fat.

        - Addition of the matrix and processed.

        - Lacquer, shellac, pens and permanent markers.

        - Oil, grease, turpentine and solid and liquid soaps.

        - Way black lithographic.

        - Investment in the drawing.

        - Methods autographs, the paper reports.


    Methods of drawing and reproduction in making slides for the sunshine and past positive photolithographic plate.

        - Positive lithographic plates industrial drawing transparencies fotorreprodución direct and positive, emulsion persists or disappears after heat stroke and revealed to disappear areas that have been exposed, but we can use the latitude, loss and dot gain in the sensitivity of the emulsion and adjusting the exposure control of the resulting image transparencies of varying degrees of opacity, posterization techniques on the array.

        - Continuous tone plates, contone process, allowing to collect some tonal range of transparencies with various degrees of opacity on the drawing. The use of their developers on commercial positive plates also permit, but with a shorter range, the acquisition of tonal range. The process is based on more or less high deposits of emulsion on the holes in the grain of the lithographic plate.


    Transparencies drawing methods:

        Direct methods:

                - Direct Draw Support acetate, vellum or polyester; draw means more or less opaque and adjust the exposure to etch: pencil, wax crayons and black or red. Pencils and lithographic bars. Paintings and black and red inks. Opacities stickers, cutouts, a brush and pen. Fat ink repellency on water. Repellency of aqueous inks on fatty media. Photocopies. Accession latex paints and powders, textures and shavings. Etc.

                - Make transparent the media of drawing, designed with more or less opaque media with oils or solvents.

                - Making the opacity of various objects, lines, reflections and light.


        Fotorreproducción:

                - Contacts direct drawing methods.

                - Photo montage of traditional original (line, pattern, stochastic and random point, Biton, posterization, continuous tone, trichromIe and process) and fotorreproducción, distortions. object on camera. Manufacture of frames, the use of loose crystals.

                - Applications of computer aided design and printing on transparent media.

                - Processes electrographic on transparent media.




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